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谭珂,Pastor L. Malabrigo,任明迅.东南亚生物多样性热点地区的形成与演化.生态学报,2020,40(11):3866~3877 本文二维码信息
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东南亚生物多样性热点地区的形成与演化
Origin and evolution of biodiversity hotspots in Southeast Asia
投稿时间:2019-04-16  修订日期:2020-01-17
DOI: " target="_blank" title="转向doi官网查询:http://dx.doi.org">
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基金项目海南省创新团队项目(2018CXTD334);国家自然科学基金项目(31670230,41871041);海南省普通高等学校研究生创新科研课题(Hyb2016-06)
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摘要:
东南亚地处热带,生物多样性极为丰富,可分为4个热点地区:印度-缅甸区的中南半岛、巽他区(含马来半岛、婆罗洲、苏门答腊岛)、菲律宾区(菲律宾群岛)、华莱士区(苏拉威西岛、爪哇岛、马鲁古群岛、小巽他群岛等)。中南半岛在泥盆纪便已是欧亚大陆的一部分,在印度板块撞击欧亚大陆之后受挤压而出;巽他区来自于冈瓦纳古陆和澳洲古陆;菲律宾群岛部分来自于劳亚古陆的碎片向南漂移,部分来自于太平洋西南岛弧的向北迁移;华莱士区则是劳亚古陆碎片、太平洋西南岛弧以及澳洲古陆北侧碎片的组合。巽他区地处赤道,常年温湿;菲律宾区、华莱士区、中南半岛则都受到不同程度的季风气候决定的干湿季变动。地质历史和季风气候影响程度的不同,奠定了东南亚4个生物多样性热点地区的雏形。华莱士区保存有大量的早期被子植物原始类群如睡莲目(Nymphaeales)和木兰藤目(Austrobaileyales),是现代被子植物起源地和冰期避难所之一。巽他区(婆罗洲)和中南半岛是亚洲热带植物的现代分布中心和"进化前沿",是整个东南亚地区重要的种源;而华莱士区的爪哇岛和小巽他群岛主要是物种迁入和中转的种库。这样的物种形成历史与迁移格局,塑造了东南亚4个生物多样性热点地区物种多样性水平与地理范围的基本格局。巽他区和印度-缅甸区曾在冰期通过陆桥相连,使得东南亚成为周边植物扩散交汇的一个"十字路口"。但是,人们对东南亚生物多样性热点地区的物种长距离扩散规律及植物地理学分区仍存在分歧;东南亚与邻近生物多样性热点地区如新几内亚岛、西高止山脉-斯里兰卡、中国横断山区的历史联系,还尚待深入解析。利用现代分子生物学技术,覆盖整个东南亚地区进行全域取样开展代表性类群的物种迁移与生物地理学研究,有望进一步揭示东南亚生物多样性热点地区的形成过程与演化趋势。
Abstract:
Southeast Asia has the largest archipelagos and probably has the most complex geological history in the world. The overwhelming monsoon climate further promotes the extremely rich biodiversityin Southwest Asia. A large number of primitive taxa of angiosperms including Austrobaileyales and Nymphaeales were found in this region. Several tropical groups such as Cyrtandra, Aeschynanthus, and Begoniaare distributed in Southeast Asia, especially in Borneo Island and Indo-China Peninsula. Thus, Southeast Asia is not only a ‘museum’ of early angiosperms, but also acts as an ‘evolutionary front’ for some tropical taxa. Based on the plant distribution pattern, climate, and geographic history, the whole of Southeast Asia can be divided into four phytogeographic regions, i.e., Indo-China Peninsula (a part of Indo-Burma hotspot), the Sundaland (including Malay Peninsula, Borneo Island, Sumatra Island and their adjacent islands), the Wallacea (Philippines, Sulawesi Island, Java Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas Islands), and the New Guinea. The Wallacea experiences obvious dry-wet seasonal changes in one year due to strong effects of monsoons, while Sundaland and New Guinea are wet for the whole year. Indo-Burma was connected with Sundaland during the glacial periods and acted as a ‘land bridge’ for plant dispersal in Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Consequently, Southeast Asia became a crossroad for long-distance dispersal of modern angiosperms. Borneo and Indo-China Peninsula are the evolutionary hotspots for the whole of Southeast Asia and act as ‘species source’, while the Java Island and Lesser Sunda Islands are mainly ‘species pool’as most species on these islands are immigrants from nearby regions. For a better understanding of the species dispersal history and the formation of phytogeographic regions in Southeast Asia, the updated molecular technologies should be used, and the plant taxa should be sampled in the entire distribution range in future studies.
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