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何建华,潘越,刘殿锋.生态网络视角下武汉市湿地生态格局分析.生态学报,2020,40(11):3590~3601 本文二维码信息
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生态网络视角下武汉市湿地生态格局分析
Analysis of the wetland ecological pattern in Wuhan City from the perspective of ecological network
投稿时间:2019-03-25  修订日期:2020-01-16
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基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(41871301,41771429);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFB0505402)
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 pany0105@whu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
城市湿地是城市发展的重要生态保障。快速城市化进程导致湿地景观破碎化,威胁湿地生态系统安全。生态网络通过廊道连接重要生境斑块,基于生态网络分析城市湿地生态格局,不仅可了解湿地的空间分布情况,还可反映湿地系统的结构与连通性特征。以武汉市为研究区,利用形态学空间格局分析(Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis,MSPA)方法识别湿地源地,结合地表景观类型、地形坡度及人类活动强度因素构建综合阻力面,采用最小累积阻力模型(Minimum Cumulative Resistance,MCR)提取生态廊道构建湿地生态网络,最后对网络进行重要性分级。分析网络的结构及区域特征,结果表明:武汉市湿地规模较大,但破碎化严重且空间分布不均;网络空间结构不完备但景观结构良好,重要廊道多位于城市边缘斑块间且集中分布在南部地区;各区域湿地格局特征不同,江夏区及汉南区湿地资源丰富且斑块质量高,廊道分布多且景观结构较好但重要性不高,黄陂区及东西湖区湿地总量少且形态破碎,区内廊道少、重要性低且景观结构有待改善,新洲区湿地规模小,廊道分布较少且景观结构不完善,但湿地及廊道重要性均较高。研究结果将为武汉市湿地保护与建设工作提供科学依据。
Abstract:
Urban wetland plays the important role of ecological guarantee in urban sustainable development. In recent years, urban wetland has become more fragmented due to the accelerated urbanization, which severely threatened the security of wetland system. Ecological network is a kind of effective landscape organization which connects important habitat patches through corridors. Compared with the landscape indexes, the analysis of urban wetland system based on ecological network is beneficial to reveal the characteristics of landscape connectivity. We took Wuhan City as our study area and used the morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) method to identify the wetland sources. Considering the influence of landscape types, slope and human activity intensity, we constructed a comprehensive resistance surface to reflect the degree of obstruction when species spread between the wetland patches. The minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model was adopted to establish the wetland ecological network. We classified the corridors according to their connectivity importance. Finally, we analyzed the structural and regional characteristics of wetland ecosystem in Wuhan. The results show that: the amount of wetland resource in Wuhan is large, but it's seriously fragmented and distributed unevenly. The wetland ecological network has a suitable landscape structure for the effective circulation of ecological processes. Most of wetland corridors are located between patches near the edge of Wuhan, especially in the south of the city. The characteristics of wetland system vary greatly in different regions. Jiangxia and Hannan have abundant wetlands and corridors, in which wetland patches are also of high quality. Their corridors have good landscape structures but are not very important for wetland connectivity. The wetlands in Huangpi and Dongxihu have little quantity and broken shape. The corridors in these two districts are few and of low importance, and their landscape structures also need to be improved. The amount of wetlands and corridors in Xinzhou are both inadequate, and the corridors are important for maintaining wetland connectivity while their landscape structures are not good enough. The results could provide scientific basis for the protection and construction of Wuhan wetlands.
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