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张雪梅,祁向坤,岳跃民,王克林.喀斯特峰丛洼地石漠化治理自然地域分区研究.生态学报,2020,(16).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201910092093  
喀斯特峰丛洼地石漠化治理自然地域分区研究
Research on natural area zoning of rocky desertification control in karst peak-cluster depression regions
投稿时间:2019-10-09  修订日期:2020-04-22
DOI: " target="_blank" title="转向doi官网查询:http://dx.doi.org">10.5846/stxb201910092093
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基金项目国家重点研发计划项目( 2016YFC0502400);国家自然科学基金项目重点项目(41930652)
作者单位E-mail
  zhangxuemei14@mails.ucas.ac.cn 
   
   
  kelin@isa.ac.cn 
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摘要:
峰丛洼地是我国西南地区面积最大的喀斯特地貌类型区,相比其他喀斯特地貌类型区,其水热资源相对较好、石漠化面积削减较快,但面临着石漠化治理投入与分区粗放、治理技术与模式缺乏区域针对性等问题。本研究修正传统地质图,考虑气候对喀斯特地貌及大地貌部位对喀斯特微地貌的综合影响开展喀斯特峰丛洼地自然地域分区。首先基于修正的地质图将峰丛洼地区划分成碎屑岩为主的非喀斯特区和碳酸盐岩为主的喀斯特区,进一步依据气候分异特征将喀斯特区划分为滇东南桂西南西南季风非典型峰丛洼地区和东亚季风典型峰丛洼地区,在此基础上,依据大地貌部位及微地貌特征将东亚季风典型峰丛洼地区进一步细分为黔西南高原面浅碟型锥峰洼地区、黔南桂北大斜坡漏斗型锥峰洼地区、桂中大斜坡南部漏斗型锥塔峰洼地区和桂南丘陵浅碟型锥塔峰洼谷区等峰丛洼地亚区。分区结果表明各分区自然地域特征鲜明:碎屑岩为主的非喀斯特区坡缓土厚,以常态山为主,人口压力相对舒缓,经济发展受石漠化制约较轻;西南季风非典型峰丛洼地区干湿季节特征鲜明,山多地少,人地关系紧张,在石漠化程度高、水土流失风险大的坡地、坡耕地地带宜发展侧重生态效益提升的喀斯特传统林木种植模式;桂中大斜坡南部漏斗型锥塔峰洼地区和黔西南高原面浅碟型锥峰洼地区地形起伏大,人口稠密,人地矛盾尖锐,石漠化问题依然突出,是未来石漠化治理的重点区域,对石漠化严重区域应采用土地集约化利用的立体生态发展模式,提高土地利用效率,注重旅游产业发展,助推农村产业结构调整和升级,减少对土地的依赖;黔南桂北大斜坡北部漏斗型锥峰洼地区城镇化程度较高,人地矛盾相对紧张,旅游丰富,石漠化较严重的坡麓坡脚地带适宜发展石生环境适应型特色高效经济林果产业;桂南丘陵浅碟型锥塔峰洼谷地区植被覆盖相对较高,人地矛盾相对缓和,经济发展水平相对较高,石漠化程度低,石漠化治理宜采用封育保护与灌木林提质改造相结合的模式。面向石漠化治理的自然地域分区明确了不同喀斯特峰丛洼地区域的自然与社会经济条件差异,有助于提升喀斯特石漠化治理的区域针对性和可持续性。
Abstract:
Karst peak-cluster depression is the largest karst geomorphic type area in southeast China. The hydrothermal resources of peak-cluster depression are relatively better and the area of rocky desertification is reduced more rapidly than the other karst geomorphic type areas. However, the region is facing the problems of extensive investment and zoning of rocky desertification control, lack of regional pertinence of control technology and mode, and so on. In this study, the traditional geological map was revised, and the national regionalization of karst peak-cluster depression was carried out considering the comprehensive influence of climate on karst landform and macro-geomorphic location on karst micro-landform. Firstly, based on the revised geological map, karst peak-cluster depression was divided into non-karst area dominated by clastic rocks and karst area dominated by carbonate rocks. Further, according to the characteristics of climate differentiation, the karst area was divided into the atypical peak-cluster depression area of southeastern Yunnan and southwestern Guangxi in Southwest monsoon and typical peak-cluster depression area in East Asia monsoon. On this basis, the typical peak-cluster depression areas of East Asia monsoon were further subdivided into shallow dish-type cone-peak depression areas in southwestern Guizhou plateau, funnel-type cone-peak depression areas in southern Guizhou and Northern Guangxi, funnel-type cone-tower depression areas in southern central Guangxi and shallow dish-type cone-tower-peak depression areas in southern Guangxi hills in accordance with the macro-geomorphological location and micro-geomorphological characteristics. The results of zoning showed that the natural geographical characteristics of each district are distinct. The landforms in non-karst area dominated by clastic rocks are dominated by normal mountains with gentle slope and thick soil, where population pressure is relatively relaxed, and economic development is less restricted by rocky desertification. The atypical peak-cluster depression area of southeastern Yunnan and southwestern Guangxi in Southwest monsoon is characterized by distinct dry-wet season characteristics, more mountains and less land, tense man-land relationship. It is advisable to develop karst traditional forest planting mode focusing on improving ecological benefits in sloping land and cultivated land with high degree of rocky desertification and high risk of soil erosion. The funnel-type cone-tower depression areas in southern central Guangxi and shallow dish-type cone-peak depression areas in southwestern Guizhou plateau are characterized by large relief, dense population, sharp contradiction between human and land, and the problem of rocky desertification is still prominent. It is a key area for future rocky desertification control. The three-dimensional ecological development model of intensive land use should be adopted in areas with serious rocky desertification, so as to improve land use efficiency and pay attention to Developing, Promoting the Adjustment and Upgrading of Rural Industrial Structure and Reducing the Dependence on Land. The funnel-type cone-peak depression areas in southern Guizhou and Northern Guangxi has a high degree of urbanization, relatively tense contradictions between people and land, rich tourism, and the foot of the slope with serious rocky desertification is suitable for the development of high-efficiency economic forest and fruit industry with the characteristics of adapting to the rocky environment. The vegetation coverage is relatively high, the contradiction between man and land is relatively relaxed, the level of economic development is relatively high and the degree of rocky desertification is low in the shallow dish-type cone-tower-peak depression areas in southern Guangxi hills. The natural division to control rocky desertification clarifies the differences of natural and socio-economic conditions in different karst peak-cluster depression sub-regions, which is helpful to enhance the regional pertinence and sustainability of the control of rocky desertification in Karst areas.

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